Tuesday, December 2, 2014

SharePoint 2010 Administration Interview Questions


SharePoint 2010 Administration Interview Questions What is Microsoft SharePoint Portal Server?

MS SharePoint Portal Server is an integrated suite from server side, to help improve organizational effectiveness with the help of providing

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What are zones?

Different logical paths (URLs meaning) of gaining access to the same SharePoint Web application.

Five Zones :

Internet Zone
Intranet
Default
Extranet
Custom

What are Web Application Policies?

Enables security policy for users at the Web application level, rather than at the site collection or site level. Importantly, they override all other security settings.

What is a site collection?

A site collection contains a top-level website and can contain one or more sub-sites web sites that have the same owner and share administration settings.

What are content databases?

A content database can hold all the content for one or more site collections.

What is a site?

A site in SharePoint contains Web pages and related assets such as lists, all hosted within a site collection.

How is SharePoint Portal Server different from the Site Server?

SharePoint Portal Server:

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- SharePoint server services are key information worker infrastructure that provides additional functionality to the MS Office system applications. Site Server:
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How is security managed in SharePoint?

Share point uses digital dashboard technology that provides an interface for the purpose of creating web parts and making them appear them on dash boards. The security is applicable throughout the organization.

What is Windows SharePoint Services?

Creation of websites for information sharing and document collaboration will be enabled by Windows SharePoint Services. It provides additional functionality for MS Office system and other desktop applications. It also supports like a platform for the development of applications.


What are the Hardware and Software requirements for SharePoint 2010 ?

Hardware requirements :
# Processor 64-bit, four-core, 2.5 GHz minimum per core.
# RAM 4 GB for developer or evaluation use, 8 GB for single server and multiple server farm installation for production use.
# Hard disk 80 GB for installation
For production use, you need additional free disk space for day-to-day operations. Add twice as much free space as you have
RAM for production environments.

Software requirements :
# The 64-bit edition of Windows Server 2008 Standard with SP2. If you are running Windows Server 2008 without SP2, the
Microsoft SharePoint Products and Technologies 2010 Preparation Tool installs Windows Server 2008 SP2 automatically.

What Has Changed with SSP in SharePoint 2010.?
In SharePoint 2010 Shared Service Providers (SSP's) are replaced by Service Applications. Services are no longer combined into a SSP. They are running independent as a service application. The service application architecture is now also built into Microsoft SharePoint Foundation 2010, in contrast to the Shared Services Provider (SSP) architecture that was only part of Office SharePoint Server 2007.
A key benefit here is that all services are installed by default and there is no SSP setup.
Additional improvements for the service application model include:

• The services architecture is extensible, allowing third-party companies to build and add services to the platform.
• Services are managed directly in Central Administration (rather than a separate administration site).
• Services can be monitored and managed remotely.
• Services can be managed and scripted by Windows PowerShell™.
• Shared services communications take place over HTTP(S). Shared services do not directly access databases across farms.
• Most new services are built on the Windows Communications Framework. They have optimization built into their protocol,
using binary streams instead of XML for data transfer. Test results show improvements in network throughput with this change.


Can we create a Single set of Services that will be shared across the farm?

Similar to the SSP model in Office SharePoint Server 2007, a single set of services can be shared by all sites in a farm. By publishing a service application (from the sharing group, under Service application tab), you can share it across server farms. This capability does not apply to all service applications, and some services can be shared only within a single server farm.

What are Managed Accounts?

To reduce the load of managing various service accounts in Microsoft SharePoint Server 2010, the concept of managed accounts has been introduced. Much like managed accounts in Windows Server 2008, they allow SharePoint Server to take control of all the service accounts you use. After SharePoint Server has control of these accounts, it can either manage their passwords — automatically changing them as necessary — or it can notify you when an accounts password is about to expire,
allowing you to make the change yourself.

What is LINQ. How is it used in Sharepoint ?

LINQ is a feature of the programming languages C# 3.0 and Visual Basic .NET. LINQ allows you to query in an object-oriented way, supports compile-time check, gives you intellisense support in Visual Studio and defines a unified, SQL like syntax to query any data source. But unlike other languages and query syntaxes which vary from one type of data source to another, LINQ can be used to query, in principle, any data source whatsoever. Hence, developers may find that it is the only query syntax that they ever need to know. It is commonly used to query objects collections, XML and SQL server data sources.
LINQ to SharePoint is officially being supported with the 2010 release.It works similar to LINQ to SQL or LINQ to Entity.
The LINQ to SharePoint Provider is defined in the Microsoft.SharePoint.Linq namespace. It translates LINQ queries into Collaborative Application Markup Language (CAML) queries.The gateway class for the LINQ to SharePoint provider is Microsoft.SharePoint.Linq.DataContext which represents the data of a SharePoint Foundation Web site.


How to Move content Databases using PowerShell ?

To attach\detach an existing content database
use Mount-SPContentDatabase "" –DatabaseServer "" –WebApplication http://webapplicationname/

is the content database to be attached.

is the name of the database server.

http://WebapplicationName is the name of the Web application to which the content database is being attached.

To detach a content database:

Dismount-SPContentDatabase ""

How to Export a Site or List in SharePoint 2010?

SharePoint Server 2010 provides several new features that provide a granular level of backup for various components of site content. This includes content at the site, subsite, and list level.

Through Central Administration(Granular level Back-up) a SharePoint Administrator can configure a backup of a subsite or list. An Administrator can choose a site and a specific list to be exported.The administrators can also choose to export security and select the different versions that will be exported with the list.

Changes in Themes in SharePoint 2010. Can we re-deploy and use the Old Cutsom themes in SharePoint 2010?
SharePoint Server 2010 has changed the way themes work, making them easier to customize. You can now, change colors, fonts, links etc from themes interface itself. Also, you can import PowerPoint themes directly into SharePoint Server.

What is Enterprise Metadata Management?

Enterprise metadata management (EMM) is a set of features introduced in Microsoft SharePoint Server 2010 that enable taxonomists, librarians, and administrators to create and manage terms and sets of terms across the enterprise.
The managed metadata service: is a service application that enables the use of managed metadata and
allows you to share content types across site collections and across Web applications. The service publishes a term store and content types, and the metadata is consumed via the managed metadata connection. A managed metadata service and connection are created when the metadata service application is created.

What are Web Applications in SharePoint?

An IIS Web site created and used by SharePoint 2010. Saying an IIS virtual server is also an acceptable answer.

What is an application pool?

A group of one or more URLs that are served by a particular worker process or set of worker processes.

Why are application pools important?

They provide a way for multiple sites to run on the same server but still have their own worker processes and identity.

What are My Sites?
Specialized SharePoint sites personalized and targeted for each user.

What is the difference between Classic mode authentication and Claims-based authentication?

As the name implies, classic authentication supports NT authentication types like Kerberos, NTLM, Basic, Digest, and anonymous. Claims based authentication uses claims identities against a against a trusted identity provider.

When would you use claims, and when would you use classic?

Classic is more commonly seen in upgraded 2007 environments whereas claims are the recommended path for new deployments.

What is Business Connectivity Services in SharePoint ?

SharePoint 2010 provides a new set of technologies known as Business Connectivity Services for retrieving, editing,updating, and deleting data from external systems(for e.g. data from ERP or CRM database). BCS enhances the SharePoint platform’s capabilities with out-of-box features, services and tools that streamline development of solutions with deep integration of external data and services.

How is BCS Different from BDC in SharePoint ?

Even though the BDC made it relatively easy to create read-only solutions that display data in the Business Data List Web Part, it was not so simple to create a solution that enabled users to make changes and write that data back to the external store.BCS, on the other hand, provides you with Read-Write capable connectivity from Client and Server to Database, WCF/Web Services and .Net Sources. A Developer can now use SharePoint Designer 2010 and VS 2010 rapid development tools to access
external data.

How would you create an Information Site in SharePoint 2010?

In SharePoint 2010 You can create a Read-Only Farm/site or site-collection by setting the Content database as Read-only.In SharePoint 2010 You can create a Read-Only Farm/site or site-collection by setting the Content database as Read-only.In a read-only farm, only content databases are read-only. All other databases, including the configuration database, Central Administration content database, and search database, are read/write.
The site collection that is associated with a read-only content database is automatically set to be read-only.

The user experience of a read-only site is characterized by the following:

* Common tasks that do not require writing to the content database are fully available.

* Most of the common tasks that require writing to the content database are not available, either because they have been
disabled in the user interface or because the user is no longer allowed to apply changes.

* Some common tasks that require writing to the content database appear to be available, but return errors.

What would you clean up before upgrading to SharePoint 2010?


Before you begin upgrading from Microsoft Office SharePoint Server 2007 to Microsoft SharePoint Server 2010, you should make sure that your environment is functioning in a healthy state and that you clean up any content that you do not have to upgrade.Before you begin upgrading from Microsoft Office SharePoint Server 2007 to Microsoft SharePoint Server 2010, you should make sure that your environment is functioning in a healthy state and that you clean up any content that you do not have to upgrade.

Clean Up - Before Upgrading to SharePoint 2010

Look for some things before you start upgrading stuff

* Delete unused or underused site collections and sites.
You do not want to upgrade content that you do not have to keep. If it has been unused for a long time and will not be needed in the future, back it up, and then delete it to free storage and administrative resources, improve upgrade performance, and reduce upgrade risk.

* Remove extraneous document versions

Large numbers of document versions can slow down an upgrade significantly. If you do not have to keep multiple versions, you can have users delete them manually or use the object model to find and remove them.

* Remove unused templates, features, and Web Parts

Firstly,verify that no sites are using any template, feature, or Web Part. You can use the pre-upgrade checker (Stsadm -o preupgradecheck) and the Stsadm -o EnumAllWebs operation to identify these customizations in your environment. If you are not using any customization, then you should delete it.

* Address large lists

By default, large list query throttling is appliedafter an upgrade to SharePoint Server 2010. If a list is very large, and users use a view or perform a query that exceeds the limit or throttling threshold, the view or query will not be permitted.Check any large lists in your environment and have the site owner or list owner address the issue before upgrade. For example, they can create indexed columns by using filtered views, organize items into folders, set an item limit on the page for a large view, or use an external list.

Describe the potential components for both a single server, and multiple servers, potentially several tiered farms :

A single-server SharePoint Server 2010 environment leverages a built-in SQL Server 2008 Express database. The problems with this environment is scalability, not being able to install the with built-in database on a domain controller, the database cannot be larger than 4 GB, and you cannot use User Profile Synchronization in a single server with built-in database installation.
An example of a multiple tier farm would be a three-tier topology, considered one of the more efficient physical and logical layouts to supports scaling out or scaling up and provides better distribution of services across the member servers of the farm. This is considered a good architecture since one can add Web servers to the Web tier, add app servers to the application tier, and add database servers to the database tier.

What is SharePoint 2010?
SharePoint 2010 is the business collaboration platform for the Enterprise & the Web that enables you to connect & empower people through an integrated set of rich features. Whether deployed on-premises or as hosted services, SharePoint 2010 helps you cut costs with a unified infrastructure while allowing you to rapidly respond to your business needs.

What Has Changed with 12 hive in SharePoint?

Three New Folders have been added in 12 hive structure.
• UserCode – files used to support sandboxed solutions .
• WebClients – used for the client Object Model.
• WebServices – .svc files .

How would you re-deploy the old custom solutions in SharePoint 2010.What Changes are needed to the old Solution files.

SharePoint 2010 object model contains many changes and enhancements, but our custom code will still compile and, will run as expected. You should however, rewrite and recompile any code that refers to files and resources in "12 hive".

Whats New with SharePoint WebParts?

A developer can create two types of webparts using Visual Studio 2010.
1. Visual Webparts - Allows you to Drag and Drop the controls from the Toolbox to WebPart Design surface. You can of course write your custom code in the code file. You can also package and deploy your webparts directly to Sharepoint from VS by pressing Clt+F5. Visual studio 2010 also provides you with three different views for developing webparts. The views are split view, design view and Source view(as we have in designer 2007).
Note : The Visual Webpart project Item basically loads a User Control as a WebPart.
2. ASP.Net WebParts - Where a developer can build up User Interface and logic in a class file. You do not have designer for drag and drop of controls. This webpart inherits from standard ASP.Net webpart. For Deployment we can again use ctrl+f5 to deploy this webpart.

What are the Visual Studio 2010 Tools for SharePoint.Ans. Visual Studio 2010 includes SharePoint-specific project types and project item types, and includes powerful packaging, deployment, and debugging features that help increase your efficiency as a SharePoint 2010 developer.
Some of the Templates avaiable are :
1.Visual Web Part project template.
2. List defination template.
3. Content Type template.
4. Empty Project template.
5. Event Receiver template.
6. some workflow template.
7. the Site Definition template
and many more....

What are SharePoint Sandboxed soultions ?
Ans. SharePoint 2010 provides a new sandboxed environment that enables you to run user solutions without affecting the rest of the SharePoint farm. This environment means that users can upload their own custom solutions without requiring intervention from administrators, and without putting the rest of the farm at risk. This means that the existing sites\pages or components will not be effected by the newly added soultion.
Users can deploy the below four things as sandboxed soultions :
1. WebParts.
2. Event Receivers.
3. List Definations.
4. Workflows.

What are Requirenments for SharePoint 2010.?

SharePoint Server 2010 will support only 64 - bit. It will require 64 bit Windows Server 2008 or 64 bit Windows Server 2008 R2. In addition to this, it will require 64 bit version of SQL Server 2008 or 64-bit version of SQL Server 2005.

What are the Methods of Backup and Recovery in SharePoint 2010?

Microsoft SharePoint Server 2010 provides a broad range of levels for performing backups, including the entire farm, farm configuration information, site collections, subsites, or lists.
SharePoint Server 2010 uses two different tools to configure backup and recovery.
1. Central Administration : Central Administration provides a user interface where SharePoint Administrators will be prompted
via menu structures to select the information that needs to be backed up. (see the Image below)
2. Windows PowerShell : Windows PowerShell is a command line tool that provides SharePoint administrators a way to perform backup and recovery with additional options such as file compression or working with SQL snapshots.
Listed below are a few of the benefits available when working with Windows PowerShell:
• Windows PowerShell scripts can be developed and scheduled (with Windows Task Scheduler), whereas Central Administration is used for single-use backups and restores.

• Windows PowerShell has the advantage of running against SQL snapshots instead of the production database. One of the parameters of the Windows PowerShell command will cause a SQL snapshot to be generated, and then Windows PowerShell will run the action against the snapshot instead of the production database. This will reduce the resource impact of the backup operation on the production environment.

• With Windows PowerShell, SharePoint administrators will have more granular control of options for the backup or restore.

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