Thursday, March 15, 2012

web 3.0


Sinhgad Technical Education Society’s
SINHGAD INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY,
LONAVALA
Tal. Maval,Dist. Pune-410401






                                                                             A
SEMINAR REPORT
ON
                                                                “WEB 3.0
                                      SUBMITTED BY
                      Mr. PARMESHWAR ASHOKRAO JADHAO
                                          UNDER THE GUIDANCE OF
                                             PROF. D. D. BADGUJAR
                     
                DEPARTMENT OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY
                STES’S SINHGAD INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY
LONAVALA
Tal. Maval, District. Pune-410401
(2011-2012)
              

CERTIFICATE
SEMINAR REPORT SUBMITTED TO THE UNIVERSITY OF PUNE, PUNE
IN THE PARIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS
FOR THE AWARD OF THE DEGREE

“WEB 3.0”
SUBMITTED BY:
PARMESHWAR ASHOKRAO JADHAO                                                                          Exam No: T8428521


           (Prof. D. D. Badgujar )                                                                                                (Prof. N. A. DHAWAS)
                  Guide                                                                                                         Head of the Department
 Department of Information Technology                                                          Department of Information Technology  
                                                                         (Dr S.S Inamdar)
Principal,
STES’s Sinhgad Institute of Technology, Lonavala –410401                  
  Place: Lonavala                                                                                        Date:     March 2012
                          ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

     I would like to mention my sincere gratitude towards our principal Dr. Mr. S.S. Inamdar and H.O.D  Prof. N. A. DHAWAS, information technology department, for giving me this opportunity to carry out this seminar.
     I take this opportunity to express my sincere thanks to my guide Prof. D. D. Baddgujar for his valuable guidance and encouragement.
     I am thankful to my teaching and non teaching staff members for providing me all facilities throughout my seminar work.
     Finally I take this opportunity to mention my sincere thanks to one and all those who help me directly and indirectly in the completion of this seminar work.
                                                                           
                                                                            
                                                                          --PARMESHWAR JADHAO
                                                                                   CLASS: TE (I.T.)
                                                                                   ROLL NO:  21





CONTENTS
         

          CERTIFICATE                                                                                  2
          ACKNOWLEDGEMENT                                                                3
          ABSTRACT                                                                                        5

CHAPTER
TITLE
PAGE NO.
1
 INTRODUCTION
6
2
 WHAT IS WEB 3.0 ?
8
3
 HOW SEMANTIC WEB WORK
         3.1  RDF considers data set
         3.2  RDF exports data as a set of relations
      
       3.3  RDF merges same resources
        


10



4
DIFFE BETWEEN WEB 2.0 AND WEB 3.0?
14
5
 EVALUATION IN WEB 1.0,WEB 2.0,WEB 3.0
16
6
WHY  WEB 3.0  IS  IMPORTANT ?

17
       7                              
DIFFERENT  PROCESS  BETWEEN  DATA  INTEGRATION
18
8
BETTER, SMARTER, FASTER : WEB 3.0
21
9
WHAT COMES AFTER WEB 2.0?

23
10                  
 CASE STUDIES OF SEMANTIC WEB TECHNOLOGY

25
11               
WEB  2.0  WAS  OVER BEFORE  IT BEGAN
27
12                       
SMARTER SEARCH ENGINES HAVE THE POTENTIAL TO  TAKEN US EVEN

28
13
 BEYOND WEB 3.0
31
14
CONCLUSION
33
                             
                                 ABSTRACT

          While Web 3.0 technologies are difficult to define precisely, the outline of emerging applications has become clear over the past year. We can thus essentially view Web 3.0 as semantic Web technologies integrated into, or powering, large-scale Web applications. The base of Web 3.0 applications resides in the resource description framework (RDF) for providing a means to link data from multiple Web sites or databases. With the SPARQL query language, a SQL-like standard for querying RDF data, applications can use native graph-based RDF stores and extract RDF data from traditional databases.most important features are the Semantic Web and personalization. Focusing on the computer elements, Conrad Wolfram has argued that Web 3.0 is where "the computer is generating new information", rather than humans.
        According to some Internet experts, Web 3.0 will allow the user to sit back and let the Internet do all of the work for them. Rather than having search engines gear towards your keywords, the search engines will gear towards the user. Keywords will be searched based on your culture, region, and jargon.
      Web 3.0 is the concept of next evolution of World Wide Web about linking, integrating,
and analyzing data from various sources of data to obtain new information streams.
Also, Web 3.0 aims to link devices to generate new approaches of connecting to the web by several machines and exchanging data among machines. However, the standard definition of Web 3.0 has not yet been emerged at this moment since Web 3.0 is mainly under developing by World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) to become a reality.




                                                             1.0  INTRODUCTION

   

     Web 3.0 is the concept of next evolution of World Wide Web about linking, integrating,and analyzing data from various sources of data to obtain new information streams.Also, Web 3.0 aims to link devices to generate new approaches of connecting to the web by several machines and exchanging data among machines. However, the standard definition of Web 3.0 has not yet been emerged at this moment since Web 3.0 is mainly under developing by World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) to become a reality.
     The main important purpose of Web 3.0, to link data, is supported by semantic web.Semantic web is a web that can demonstrate things in the approach which computer can understand. The system offers a common framework that helps data to be connected, shared and reused across the applications, organizations and communities.The semantic web allows a person or a machine to begin with one database and then link through an infinity set of open databases which are not connect by wires, but connect data by referring into common things such as a person, place, idea, concept,etc. Semantic web mainly operates on Resource Description Framework (RFD) which is
standard model for data interchange on the web. RDF is written in XML language that can easily be exchanged between the different types of computers with different types of operating system .
Meantime, RFD joins structure of the web with Uniform Resource Identifiers (URIs) and allows original data in each database to form in an original form such as XML, Excel, etc. because RFD builds an abstract layer separately from the underlying data format.

     One of important logics behind the development of semantic web is ArtificialIntelligence.The Artificial Intelligence (AI) is the field of computer science targeting to create machines that are able to occupy on behavior that humans consider intelligent.Thereby,some parts of semantic web technologies are relied on Artificial Intelligence research such as model technology for RDF and knowledge representation for ontology. However, the development of semantic web also gene- rates new perspective for Artificial Intelligence community as the benefits of URIs linkage in RDF. Another objective of Web 3.0 is  ubiquitous web that facilitates accessibility for anyone ,anywhere, anytime by using any devices. This objective desires to break barriers of bandwidth constraints, poor display on mobile device and cost of data besides computer device. Then, web 3.0 will enable a web linked of devices to match with the increasing in web of linked data by using Cascading Style Sheet layout (CSS) standards which allows HTML document to display in different output style, support content adaptation and use smaller image.In summary, web 3.0 composes of two main platforms, semantic technologies and social computing environment. The semantic technology represents open standard that can be applied on the top of the current web. Meanwhile, the social computing environment means web 3.0 focuses on human-machine synergy and  to organize a large number of current social web communities.



     We are now in web 2.0 era while gradually entering into full web 3.0 era in near future. The boundary and main purpose between web 2.0 and web 3.0 are distinctly detached. However, web 3.0 is not created to replace web 2.0 but to fix and improve the constraints of web 2.0. Then, this section describes more details on distinction of web 2.0 and web 3.0. when the contents come from various types of database structure, there are a lot of applications required to manage contents. In addition, some complex sets of data structure that computer is not able to understand how to link them together.


                                            2.0 WHAT  IS  WEB  3.0
 
   Web 3.0 is the concept of next evolution of World Wide Web about linking,integrating, and analyzing data from various sources of data to obtain new information streams.Also, Web 3.0 aims to link devices to generate new approaches of connecting to the web by several machines and exchanging data among machines. However, the standard definition of Web 3.0 has not yet been emerged at this moment since Web 3.0 is mainly under developing by World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) to become a reality .The main important purpose of Web 3.0, to link data, is supported by semantic web. Semantic web is a web that can demonstrate things in the approach which computer can understand. The system offers a common framework that helps data to be connected, shared and reused across the applications, organizations and communities.
    
    The semantic web allows a person or a machine to begin with one database and then link through an infinity set of open databases which are not connect by wires, but connect data by referring into common things such as a person, place, idea, concept, etc. Semantic web mainly operates on Resource Description Framework (RFD) which is standard model for data interchange on the web. RDF is written in XML language that can easily be exchanged between the different types of computers with different types of operating system, Meantime, RFD joins structure of the web with Uniform Resource Identifiers (URIs) and allows original data in each database to form in an original form such as XML, Excel, etc because RFD builds an abstract layer separately from the underlying data format.
    One of important logics behind the development of semantic web is Artificial Intelligence. The Artificial Intelligence (AI) is the field of computer science targeting to create machines that are able to occupy on behavior that humans consider intelligent. Thereby, some parts of semantic web technologies are relied on Artificial Intelligence research such as model technology for RDF and knowledge representation for ontology.
     Another objective of Web 3.0 is a ubiquitous web that facilitates accessibility for anyone, anywhere,  anytime by using any devices. This objective desires to break barriers of bandwidth constraints, poor display on mobile device and cost of data besides computer device. Then, web 3.0 will enable a web linked of devices to match with the increasing in web of linked data by using Cascading Style Sheet layout (CSS) standards which allows HTML document to display in different output style, support content adaptation and use smaller. In summary, web3.0 composes of two main platforms, semantic technologies and social computing environment. The semantic technology represents open standard that can be applied on the top of the current web. Meanwhile, the social computing environment means web 3.0 focuses on human-machine synergy and desires to organize a large number of current social web communities.

    How do we see the future of the Semantic Web and, most importantly, the application of Semantic Web technologies for “mainstream” IT problems and systems? With Web 3.0, these technologies are finding fertile ground in multitiered Web applications in which the middle tier can be implemented using an RDF triple store: a component that allows, among other things, the integration of heterogeneous data sources and repositories. SPARQLs emergence the standard query language for RDF lets many data stores expose themselves as SPARQL endpoints, thus enabling flexible data exchange among systems. It is leading the way toward Web applications that exhibit a kind of “fractal” structure, with patterns in which one component uses another as a data source and acts as a data source to yet another component. Such architectures open up new possibilities for the original vision of Web services and loosely coupled distributed systems.





                       3.0  HOW  CAN  SEMANTIC  WEB  WORK ?
     As mentioned before, RDF is the crucial language on Semantic web which intends to develop relations between data on the web and to interchange those data. For example, the data integration process of RDF is demonstrated by an example of bookstore data set .
     At first, the RDF begins data integration process with consider data set. Each data is collected into each categories such as ISBN number, author name, title of book and home page of author.
.
Figure 1: RDF considers data set

In second step, RDF exports data into a set of relations. The data of publisher address and name are grouped separately from author name and homepage with connection of ISBN number (see fig 2).
Figure 2: RDF exports data as a set of relations

After second step, when semantic web finds new set of data of book that has correspondent URI with another set of data, RDF will integrate the same resources together (see figure 3 and 4).

Figure 3: RDF merges same resources












Figure 4: RDF integrated sets of data:
Finally, RDF will continue to integrate other resources that connect to each data.In this example, RDF merges author data into other sets of data of Wikipedia of books that were written by the same author. Also, the other sets of data as born place of authorand the Googlemap of that place (see figure 5).








Figure 5: the merge continues to other sets of data:









                4.0 What’s difference between web 2.0 and web 3.0?

     We are now in web 2.0 era while gradually entering into full web 3.0 era in near future. The boundary and main purpose between web 2.0 and web 3.0 are distinctly detached. However, web 3.0 is not created to replace web 2.0 but to fix and improve the
constraints of web 2.0. Then, this section describes more details on distinction of web
2.0 and web 3.0.First of all, the major difference objective between web 2.0 and web 3.0 is that web 2.0targets on content creativity of users and producers while web 3.0 targets on linked sets of data. One principle that web 2.0 was developed from web 1.0 is to be stimulated creativity, information sharing and collaboration with more dynamic of contents from users and website providers. Then, a numerous number of the web blogs and social lwebs are emerges in global World Wide Web society.
   
      Web 3.0 focuses more on the connection of datasets that are created in web 2.0 era. Secondly, Asynchronous JavaScript (AJAX) programming language, suggested by Google, is popularly used in web 2.0 that encourage better, faster and more interactive web application. However, information interchange among the databases in web 2.0 limits interoperability, which is called walled gardens. According to the endeavor to solve limitation of web 2.0, web 3.0 brings machine to help integrate more contents in World Wide Web society by using Resource Description Framework (RDF) technology which develops programming language from XML to be able to read and understood by computers. Thereupon, web 3.0 arranges a new standard of programming language as well as generates additional advantage from integrating a large number of metadata that were created in web 2.0 to be more efficiency to exploit.
    

     Thirdly, in the view of analyze data, in web 2.0 humans contributes greater role in physically analyze data than web 3.0. Moreover, an ability to analyze of humans is limited in term of knowledge background, topic interesting and language in individual person. While machines can help humans to analyze data in web 3.0 since the data is defined in term of relationship between data resources with data properties. Finally, the current websites that can be a good representative for web 2.0 are big search engine, using AJAX programming language, such as Google, web blogs that create more interactive activities in internet such as facebook and big online encyclopedia such as Wikipedia. Although web 3.0 is in the developing process, Dbpedia ans SIOC-project can be a representative of web 3.0 because Dbpedia uses RDF technology to link datasets on the web to Wikipedia data while SIOC project aims to enable the integration of online community in RDF.






        5.0   Figure 6: difference between web 2.0 and web 3.0



              Web 2.0
                  Web 3.0
Main task
Focus the power of
community to create dynamic
contents and interaction
technology
Linked data, devices and people
     across  the web
Linking
Walled gardens inhibit
interoperability
Data and devices linked more
easily and in new ways
Content
Individual and organization
create content
Individual, organization,
machine create content which can be reused
Technology
AJAX
Resource Description
framework (RDF)
Website
Google, facebook, wikipedia,
ebay, youtube
Dbpedia, sioc-project.org














Figure 7: evolution in web 1.0, web 2.0 and web 3.0
  6.0 WHY  WEB 3.0  IS  IMPORTANT ?
Web 3.0 improves data management: when the contents come from various types of database structure, there are a lot of applications required to manage contents. In addition, some complex sets of data structure that computer is not able to understand how to link them together.
     This problem can be occurred when combing sets of data from different origin somewhere on the web, different format such as excel sheet or XHTML or different names for relation such as multilingual. The semantic website solves this problem by describing relationship between each data or things and properties; therefore, the computer can understand the relationship between sets of data and can integrate it together. Figure 6 compares the different processes between
normal sets of data integration that involves human to be a center to merge datasets with set of data integration in semantic web that can automatically merge by the system.

           




WEB 3.0 SUPPORTS ACCESSIBILITY OF MOBILE INTERNET:

     The number of mobile subscribers has surpassed 3 billion subscribers already in the end of 2007. The global mobile penetration rate in the end of 2007 was 48% which expected to continually grow in near future, particularly on BRIC economy countries (Brazil, Russia , India and China). Moreover, many mobile operators in the world tend to shift mobile technology base from 2G to 3G which represents greater channel to access internet via mobile devices,Hence, web 3.0 plays the main role to enhance internet accessibility via mobile because web 3.0 develops based on Cascading Style Sheet (CSS) Standard that helps to reduce the page size to lower than 20kb by smaller background image.






Figure 6: DIFFERENT  PROCESS  BETWEEN  DATA  INTEGRATION:-

  “ Normal  sets of data integration”           Set of data integration in semantic web”

WEB 3.0 STIMULATES CREATIVITY AND INNOVATION:

     The main concept of web 3.0 promises that all global datasets will be linked together. The information and knowledge datasets can be apply by humans and machines have more efficiency than this moment. Therefore, this will be driven innovation process in term of idea generation and research and development (R&D) area that refer to easier way to discover new business model.







            WEB 3.0  ENCOURAGE  FACTOR  OF  GLOBALIZATION
                                              PHENOMENO:-

     Web 3.0 aims to build standardize of data structure via RDF programming language. The datasets of current information in the World Wide Web will be unlocked from the existing data structure and integrated all data structure together in the same standard. This presents speed up Globalization phenomena in near future.







                WEB 3.0 ENHANCES CUSTOMER’S SATISFACTION:

by using Artificial Intelligence concept in web 3.0 that adds brain for computer, business units will easier to improve their customer satisfaction in term of Customer relationship management (CRM) such as clients can be provide broader group of information about the product in customer service webpage or related information from other datasets.










WEB 3.0 HELPS TO ORGANIZE COLLABORATION IN SOCIAL WEB

Nowadays many people register to be members of many social websites and many weblogs have been emerged, then, SOIC-project initiates purpose to merge the social web community information together by using semantic web technology in RDF. The process is to create distributed conversations across blogs, forum and mailing lists.

        


   8.0 BETTER, SMARTER, FASTER : WEB 3.0

     The growing and central role of technology in organizational learning can be characterized as both a boon and a burden. While the benefits of emerging technologies are broad and unprecedented, it is nearly impossible to keep pace with the rapid evolution of these tools. Even as today’s technology experts discuss artificial intelligence, immersive virtual worlds, and the future of mobile devices, many organizations are still wrestling with how to best leverage online learning.

     As noted in ASTD’s recent study, The Rise of Social Media, learning functions have not fully adopted many of the tools, technologies, and concepts associated with Web 2.0, and yet the next evolution of the web—often referred to as Web 3.0—is upon us. The latest ASTD research study, Better, Smarter, Faster: How Web 3.0 Will Transform Learning in High-Performance Organizations, investigates the various components of Web 3.0 and how they might influence the future of learning, with an emphasis on the practices of high-performance organizations.

    Rather than a collection of technologies or applications that can be purchased or installed, Web 3.0 represents an evolutionary shift in how people interact with the web, and vice versa. For the purposes of this new study, Web 3.0 comprises three basic components: the Semantic Web, the Mobile Web, and the immersive Internet.

     The Semantic Web refers to technology whereby software can understand the meaning of data and use natural language searches. It creates a customized experience where information is tailored to the users’ needs, location, and identity.

    The Mobile Web allows users to experience the web seamlessly as they move from one device to another and one location to another. In the immersive Internet, virtual worlds, augmented reality, and 3-D environments are the norm.
                          9.0  WHAT COMES AFTER WEB 2.0?

     Many researchers and entrepreneurs are working on Internet-based knowledge-organizing technologies that stretch traditional definitions of the Web. Lately, some have been calling the technologies "Web 3.0." But really, they're closer to "Web 2.1."


     Typically, the name Web 2.0 is used by computer programmers to refer to a combination of a) improved communication between people via social-networking technologies, b) improved communication between separate software applications--read "mashups"--via open Web standards for describing and accessing data, and c) improved Web interfaces that mimic the real-time responsiveness of desktop applications within a browser window.


     To see how these ideas may evolve, and what may emerge after Web 2.0, one need only look to groups such as MIT's Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory, the World Wide Web Consortium, Amazon.com, and Google. All of these organizations are working for a smarter Web, and some of their prototype implementations are available on the Web for anyone to try. Many of these projects emphasize leveraging the human intelligence already embedded in the Web in the form of data, metadata, and links between data nodes. Others aim to recruit live humans and apply their intelligence to tasks computers can't handle. But none are ready for prime time.


The first category of projects is related to the Semantic Web, a vision for a smarter Web laid out in the late 1990s by World Wide Web creator Tim Berners-Lee. The vision calls for enriching every piece of data on the Web with metadata conveying its meaning. In theory, this added context would help Web-based software applications use the data more appropriately.


My current Web calendar, for example, knows very little about me, except that I have appointments today at 8:30 A.M. and 4:00 P.M. A Semantic Web calendar would not only know my name, but would also have a store of standardized metadata about me, such as "lives in: Las Vegas," "born in: 1967," "likes to eat: Thai food," "belongs to: Stonewall Democrats," and "favorite TV show: Battlestar Galactica." It could then function much more like a human secretary. If I were trying to set up the next Stonewall Democrats meeting, it could sift through the calendars of other members and find a time when we're all free. Or if I asked the calendar to find me a companionable lunch date, it could scan public metadata about the friends, and friends of friends, in my social network, looking for someone who lives nearby, is of a similar age, and appreciates Asian food and sci-fi.


Alas, there's no such technology yet, partly because of the gargantuan effort that would be required to tag all the Web's data with metadata, and partly because there's no agreement on the right format for metadata itself. But several projects are moving in this direction, including FOAF, short for Friend of a Friend. FOAF files, first designed in 2000 by British software developers Libby Miller and Dan Brickley, are brief personal descriptions written in a standard computer language called the Resource Description Framework (RDF); they contain information such as a person's name, nicknames, e-mail address, homepage URL, and photo links, as well as the names of the people that person knows.
     

          10.0 WEB  2.0  WAS  OVER BEFORE  IT BEGAN

     From internet time-immemorial, people and socializing have been just as important as information. In this regard Web 2.0 (the so-called "social web") signifies the concluding phase of
an initial era; it does not really signal the beginning of a new one. The term Web 2.0 does mark the ushering in of a new generation of internet users to the grand online theater, but their behaviors are not all that different from their Web 1.0
      forebears: both generations rely heavily on search engines; youngers use Facebook, elders use listservs; youngers use texting, elders use email. Other than their preferred toolset and their much faster interface-deciphering skills, the youngers are alot like their elders.     


     GOING JUST  A LITTELE FURTHER WITH GOOGLE

     Google Search sealed the deal that made the internet THE LIBRARY.(Long-gone are the days when librarians sought to bar the doors to Google or scoffed at its value.) This important development --arguably the very first step towards Web 3.0-- left teachers and schools more or less in a secure position: yes, students could easily gather the same information their instructors could gather (making the library a bit expendable) but they still lacked the ability to assemble information and perspectives into knowledge. Google Apps (i.e., Sites, Docs, and iGoogle) represents a second step towards Web 3.0. These apps are knocking on the door of THE SCHOOL, simply because they create an easy-to-use knowledge assembly environment. For much the same reason librarians could not stop Google Search from re-making the internet into THE LIBRARY, teachers will likely not be able to stop Google Apps (and/or whatever
replaces them) from re-making the internet into THE SCHOOL.
                                            11.0  BEYOND WEB 3.0



How do we see the future of the Semantic Web and, most importantly, the application of  Semantic Web technologies for “mainstream” IT problems and systems? With Web 3.0, these technologies are finding fertile ground in multitiered Web applications in which the middle tier can be implemented using an RDF triple store: a component that allows, among other things, the integration of heterogeneous data sources and repositories. SPARQL’s emergence as the standard query language for RDF lets many data stores expose themselves as SPARQL endpoints, thus enabling flexible data exchange among systems. It is leading the way toward Web applications that exhibit a kind of “fractal” structure, with patterns in which one component uses another as a data source (via SPARQL, for example) and acts as a data source to yet another
component (see Figure 1). Such architectures open up new possibilities for the original vision of Web services and loosely coupled distributed systems. Essentially, we can view Semantic
Web technology as a novel approach to interoperability: application developers can defer to the runtime accessible semantics of a dialogue between two information systems even after the systems have been deployed. By using reasoning mechanisms to access implied information within conversations of explicit statements, and by enabling systems to dynamically add  capabilities by acquiring new ontologies and data to reason over, the Semantic Web lets us
build future-proof systems that have a chance of “doing the right thing” even in unexpected situations. This approach  is particularly amenable to scenarios and situations in which interoperability is critical — for example, the ubiquitous
computing vision of environments with pervasive embedded computation. Toconnect, say, your handheld device to a dynamically changing set of dozens, if not hundreds, of other systems that are often beyond your ownership or control (and potentially hostile), requires fundamentally
new approaches to ensuring interoperability. No longer can we expect a priori standardization of every pair-wise interaction between all possible systems we anticipate interacting with; indeed, we can’t even anticipate all future scenarios. Operating in such an open-ended world requires mechanisms for limiting the decision-making scope. For example, when seeking a particular kind of new service to use, you’ll want to limit the set of candidates to something that’s contextually relevant (such as those that are offered in your current location). Similarly, traditional access control mechanisms might not scale to situations in which we have an openended
set of systems and users: we need new decision-making mechanisms to enforce more flexible policies. From the representational viewpoint, Semantic Web technologies offer the possibility
of implementing these kinds of technological frameworks and platforms. We claim that context-awareness and policy-awareness are complementary rather than separate mechanisms — think of policies (and their enforcement) as a particular kind of context. In the longer term, given that
Semantic Web technologies are maturing as a means of describing things, we could use their representational power to describe things in the real world. One view is that the physical objects will become Web-accessible in that we will be able to represent them via metadata. Just like applying semantic technologies to problems of interoperability in ubiquitous computing environments, describing physical things will expand our scope beyond the current Web. This
is not unlike when some argue that Web services merely exploit mechanisms and technologies developed for the Web, but really have nothing to do with it. Semantic Web efforts provide an approach to constructing flexible, intelligent information systems; some are
Web-based applications, but we’re cer- Figure 1. Sample “fractal” architecture of Semantic Web applications. Dynamic content engines, backed by RDF triple stores, act as both producers and
consumers of “semantic” data. Data exchange can be facilitated using, for example, SPARQL. RDF triple store HTTP HTTP with SPARQL HTML Browser RDF Dynamic content RDF engine triple store AI application Code and reasoned Ontology Address: > go @@ Internet Zone Back Forward Stop Refresh Home Print Mail Dynamic content engine tainly not limited to those. At the same time, the application scope for Web technologies is expanding elsewhere. For example, W3C has started an initiative dubbed the Ubiquitous Web, acknowledging the benefits of expanding the Web’s reach beyond our desktop and laptop computers to other types of devices and situations. The synergies between ubiquity and semantics are an exciting area in which we expect to see significant future work.









                                           CONCLUSION


     Since the invention of web in 1989 by Tim Berners-Lee, the evolution of web still continues to be in a state of development to enhance the most powerful communication tool in the world. At present, the world internet usage rapidly ramps up to 1.4 billion users or 21.1% of world population compare with 16 million internet users in 1995 or 0.4% of world population. This statistic presents that internet is more important to human being since it was invented and there is a strong potential of internet to grow in the long term due to the internet penetration rate of world population is now only 21.1%. Web 3.0 is another evolution step of web that intends to extend the ability of the application as well as maximize benefits from resources in the World Wide Web community by linked data, devices and people across the web.






























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